The Meanings of Health and its Promotion
The Constitution of the World Health Organization, which came into force on April 7, 1948, defined health “as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being.” The writers of the Constitution were clearly aware of the tendency of seeing health as a state dependent on the presence or
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Concepts and definitions of health and health-related
Health is an aspect interwoven with all other aspects of life, everyday life, working life, family life, and community life. Health is viewed a resource and a total, personal, situation-specific phenomenon. Absence of disease is not enough – the life situation as a whole must be taken into consideration.
Sociology and Health
Health Problems as Social Problems. The historical focus of sociology is on social problems in human society. Social problems include health problems, crime , deviance, violence , poverty , inequality, population problems, delinquency, and institutional instability.
Public health: Health geography: supporting public health
Health geography recognizes the importance of context, setting and spatial scale — from global to local — in determining health outcomes. The issues facing health and health care are complex and an integrative, multidisciplinary approach is crucial to ensure that research provides relevant, high-quality evidence to inform health policy.
Multigenerational health research using population-based
Family health history is a well-established risk factor for many health conditions, including heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, some cancers, and some mental health conditions. Genetics and shared environments are reflected in the family health history, making it a valuable component of multifactorial health risk assessments [ 1 ] from both
Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity
First, health is a prerequisite for education: hungry children or children who cannot hear well, or who have chronic toothaches, eg, are hindered in their learning. 5 Second, education about health (ie, health education) occurs within schools and in many public health interventions; it is a central tool of public health. 6 Third, physical
The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of
Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic has been a period of upheaval for college students. The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with the increased levels of mental health burden among a sample of undergraduate college students in Northern New Jersey, the region of the U.S. severely impacted by the outbreak of COVID-19.
Racial Disparities in Health Care Utilization at the End
Purpose: Racial and ethnic disparities in cancer care near the end of life (EOL) have been recognized, but EOL care experienced by Medicaid beneficiaries is not well understood. We assessed the prevalence of aggressive EOL care and hospice enrollment for Medicaid beneficiaries and determined whether racial and ethnic disparities exist.
Theorizing Time in Abortion Law and Human Rights
In health, the article explores how international human rights law sets standards of legitimacy for abortion law as health regulation, welcoming gestational limits to the extent they are necessary to ensure safe and quality abortion services as a health intervention. Human rights thus call for abortion laws to be evidence-based to counter the
Health Databases and Health Database Organizations: Uses
No one engaged in any part of health care delivery or planning today can fail to sense the immense changes on the horizon, even if the silhouettes of those changes, let alone the details, are in dispute. 11The Clinton administration's proposed Health Security Act (HSA, 1993) gives appreciable attention to information systems and related matters.
The Health Care Delivery System
This chapter addresses the issues of access, managing chronic disease, neglected health care services (i.e., clinical preventive services, oral, and mental health care and substance abuse services), and the capacity of the health care delivery system to better serve the population in terms of cultural competence, quality, the workforce, financing, information technology, and emergency
Health needs assessment : Development and importance of
Health needs assessment is a new phrase to describe the development and refinement of well established approaches to understanding the needs of a local population. In the 19th century the first medical officers for health were responsible for assessing the needs of their local populations.
Today’s Health Problems and Health Education
Health education and health educators will be expected to contribute to the reduction of the negative impact of such major health problems as heart disease, cancer, dental disease, mental illness and other neurological disturbances, obesity, accidents, and the adjustments necessary to a productive old age.
Technology and the Future of Healthcare
Health 2.0. There are many areas where the scale and unit profits of the healthcare market will drive technical developments. Collectively, this technology-driven progress in healthcare is sometimes called Health 2.0, to distinguish it from what we are doing now – Health 1.0. While Health 2.0 is exciting, it is sobering to realize that
Health risks from radiofrequency radiation, including 5G
Evaluation of health risks in Switzerland. Several Swiss citizens have brought to our attention that Associate Professor Martin Röösli is the chair of two important government expert groups in Switzerland (directeur), despite possible COIs and a history of misrepresentation of science (22,23).These groups are Beratende Expertengruppe NIS (BERENIS; the Swiss advisory expert …
The Role of Public Health Institutions in Global Health
Health systems are certainly complex, and specific activities need to address and adapt to local contexts . However, we believe that if these functions are themselves strengthened, they would in turn have the greatest impact on strengthening the health system as a whole and, therefore, have the greatest impact on the public's health.
Understanding Population Health and Its Determinants
For most people, thinking about health and health care is a very personal issue. Assuring the health of the public, however, goes beyond focusing on the health status of individuals; it requires a population health approach. As noted in Chapter 1, America's health status does not match the nation's substantial health investments. The work of assuring the nation's health also faces dramatic
Cell phone addiction and psychological and physiological
It is confirmed that adolescent's mental health and physical health is associated with cell phone addiction. But we cannot say it with 100 % accuracy that mobile phone is the only cause of poor mental or physiological health issues in adolescents. Reviewed articles of this study showed dual results.
The Impact of Social and Cultural Environment on Health
Health is determined by several factors including genetic inheritance, personal behaviors, access to quality health care, and the general external environment (such as the quality of air, water, and housing conditions). In addition, a growing body of research has documented associations between social and cultural factors and health (Berkman and Kawachi, 2000; Marmot and Wilkinson, 2006).
A Detailed Review Study on Potential Effects of
3. Effects of Micro and Nanoplastics on Human Health. A recent report from the “World Health Organization” emphasized the ubiquitous microplastics presence in the environment and aroused great concern regarding the exposition and effects of nano and microplastics on human health [122,147,148,149,150].
Water, Hydration and Health
The AI for different population groups was set as the median water intake in populations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, whose intake levels varied greatly based on the survey years (e.g., NHANES 1988–94 vs NHANES 1999–2002) and also were much higher than the USDA surveys (e.g., 1989–91, 1994–98, or 2005–6).
Health care professional development: Working as a team to
Team-based health care is the provision of health services to individuals, families, and/or their communities by at least two health providers who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers—to the extent preferred by each patient – to accomplish shared goals within and across settings to achieve coordinated, high-quality care
Defining health by addressing individual, social, and
Results: Explicating the Meikirch Model of Health. The Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond
Social Relationships and Health: A Flashpoint for Health
Social relationships—both quantity and quality—affect mental health, health behavior, physical health, and mortality risk. Sociologists have played a central role in establishing the link between social relationships and health outcomes, identifying explanations for this link, and discovering social variation (e.g., by gender and race) at the population level.
Summary of the Public Health System in the United States
This section summarizes the organization of health agencies, the range of activities carried out by them, and their use and allocation of resources at the federal, state, and local levels. When possible, the range of activities of health agencies are categorized by the functions of public health as outlined in Chapter 2: assessment, policy development and leadership, and assurance of access to
Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
A number of integrative health organizations encourage members to model healthy lifestyle behaviors, including the Academy of Integrative Health & Medicine 40 and the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians. 41 Among some integrative health educational institutions, a culture of wellness exists, where healthy food choices are readily
Teaching seven principles for public health ethics
In the field of public health, the primary end sought is the health of the broader constituency of the public and improvements to this are the key outcome used to measure success . In fact, the maximisation of population health, on the one hand, and beneficence and non-maleficence, on the other hand, can come into conflict.
The impact of poverty on the current and future health
Birth outcomes. Infant mortality is the most basic indicator of societal health and well-being, given its sensitivity not only to levels of wealth but also to its relative distribution ().In 1996, Canada’s infant mortality rate in the lowest-income urban neighbourhoods was 66% higher (6.5 deaths per 1000 live births) than in the highest-income urban neighbourhoods (3.9 deaths per 1000 live
Responsibility for health: personal, social, and environmental
Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. 13 Undoubtedly, ensuring access is an important social responsibility, but there are many other ways in which societies can promote health, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health
GIS in Health and Human Services
The chapter begins with a general overview of how GIS has evolved in the health and human services over the last several decades providing readers with important definitions and descriptions (Sects. 29.1, 29.2).Sections 29.3, 29.4 uncovers how GIS became an important tool for epidemiologists in the work of tracking infectious diseases and perfecting the study of population health.
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage
Racial and ethnic disparities in health insurance coverage rates account for a sizable share of the difference in access to health care (Lillie-Blanton and Hoffman 2005).African American and Hispanic individuals in the United States are more likely to be uninsured throughout adulthood than non-Hispanic individuals (Kirby and Kaneda 2010).Without insurance, people face considerable barriers in
What is “community health”
Introduction. The evolution of public health has led to substantial changes in approaches to improving the health of members of communities. In the United States, these changes reflect the influence of many community-centered health developments, including the creation of national-level programs enacted by Congress, the establishment of dedicated governmental units at federal and state levels
Wearable Health Devices—Vital Sign Monitoring, Systems and
1. Introduction. Wearable Health Devices (WHDs) are an emerging technology that enables continuous ambulatory monitoring of human vital signs during daily life (during work, at home, during sport activities, etc.) or in a clinical environment, with the advantage of minimizing discomfort and interference with normal human activities .WHDs are part of personal health systems, a concept
What Is Community
PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMS and policy are often defined at regional and national levels, but community is, literally, where prevention and intervention take place. Community context has been identified as an important determinant of health outcomes.1 Recognition of these facts has led to increased calls for community collaboration as an important strategy for successful public health …
Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Research and
4. Religion, Spirituality, and Mental Health. Approximately 80% of research on R/S and health involves studies on mental health. One would expect stronger relationships between R/S and mental health since R/S involvement consists of psychological, social, and behavioral aspects that are more “proximally” related to mental health than to physical health.
The Governmental Public Health Infrastructure
Responding to Disarray. The Future of Public Health provided the public health community with a common language and a focus for reform, and progress has been made. In Washington, Illinois, and Michigan, for example, revisions of the state public health codes resulted in the inclusion of mandatory provisions for funding and the distribution of services to all communities “no matter how small
Islamophobia, Health, and Public Health: A Systematic
A fourth of the studies examined physical health or health behaviors (n = 13; 25%).19,28,29,38,43,46,53,54,64,66,68 Others focused on both physical and mental health (n = 10; 19%) or health care seeking (n = 7; 13%).26,49,58–60,67,69 Only a third of the studies (n = 19; 36%) included a measure of religion. Bias was a serious or critical
What is e-health
e-health is an emerging field in the intersection of medical informatics, public health and business, referring to health services and information delivered or enhanced through the Internet and related technologies. In a broader sense, the term characterizes not only a technical development, but also a state-of-mind, a way of thinking, an
The Root Causes of Health Inequity
Health inequity, categories and examples of which were discussed in the previous chapter, arises from social, economic, environmental, and structural disparities that contribute to intergroup differences in health outcomes both within and between societies. The report identifies two main clusters of root causes of health inequity. The first is the intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional
Implicit Racial/Ethnic Bias Among Health Care
HEALTH DISPARITIES AND PROVIDER ATTITUDES. Provider attitudes and behavior are a target area for researchers and practitioners attempting to understand and eradicate inequitable health care.7 Although overt discriminatory behavior in the United States may have declined in recent decades, covert discrimination and institutional bias are sustained by subtle, implicit attitudes that may influence
Defining health and health inequalities
Health is therefore a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept embracing social and personal resources as well as physical and psychological capacities’. 11 ‘[health is] the capability to cope with and to manage one's own malaise and well-being conditions.’ 12
Online Social Networking and Mental Health
Social Networking and Self-Esteem. Many authors define the term “self-esteem” as “the evaluative component of the self—the degree to which one prizes, values, approves or likes oneself.” 10,11 It is an important factor in developing and maintaining mental health and overall quality of life. 12–14 Low self-esteem is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous mental illnesses
Health Care Services for Homeless People
To the extent that homeless people have been able to obtain needed health care services, they have relied on emergency rooms, clinics, hospitals, and other facilities that serve the poor. Indigent people (with or without a home) experience many obstacles in obtaining health care. For homeless people there are additional barriers. Recognition of the special health care needs of homeless people
Veteran and Military Mental Health Issues
As the United States faces two decades of continuous war, media and individuals with personal military connections have elevated public and professional concerns for the mental health of veterans and service members. The most publicized mental health challenges facing veterans service members are PTSD and depression. Some research has suggested that approximately 14% to 16% …
STRESS AND HEALTH: Psychological, Behavioral, and
Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long
Health policy and public health implications of obesity in
Affiliations 1 Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address: [email protected] 2 Department of Health Policy and Management, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.; 3 Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
The COVID-19 pandemic and health inequalities
This essay examines the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for health inequalities. It outlines historical and contemporary evidence of inequalities in pandemics—drawing on international research into the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918, the H1N1 outbreak of 2009 and the emerging international estimates of socio-economic, ethnic and geographical inequalities in COVID-19 infection …